To provide extra revenue for improving city bus service, the mayor of Greenville proposed

To provide extra revenue for improving city bus service, the mayor of Greenville proposed a fare increase. The director of the bus service, however, pointed out that the previous bus fare increase had resulted in so many regular riders abandoning the bus system altogether that revenues from bus service had decreased. Another fare increase, the director argued, would only lead to another revenue drop. The director s argument depends on which of the following assumptions?

A.The previous fare increase was the same amount as the proposed fare increase.

B.Fare increases do not necessarily lead to lower revenues from city bus service.

C.A decrease in fares would result in increased ridership and increased revenues from bus service.

D.The fare increase would make Greenville" s bus service much more expensive than bus services in other comparable cities.

E.Some of the people currently using the bus have the option of not traveling by bus.


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Springtowns fire department wants the town council to buy it another ladder truck. These trucks are useful in fighting fires in high-rise buildings. The town council argues, however, that Springtown has only two high-rise buildings, and it already owns enough ladder trucks to fight any fires there. So, they say, Springtown does not need another ladder truck. The town councils argument assumes that

A.Springtown cannot afford to buy another ladder truck.

B.Springtown"s high-rise buildings all meet or exceed current fire safety standards.

C.the number of high-rise buildings in Springtown is likely to grow. least one of Springtown"s ladder trucks is not due to be permanently removed from service in the immediate future. is possible to fight fires successfully in high-rise buildings without using ladder trucks.

Bracken, a poisonous weed, is spreading and damaging much pastureland in the Northern Hemisphere. One potentially inexpensive and self-sustaining countermeasure is to introduce natural enemies of the plant; therefore, some scientists have proposed to control bracken by a release of bracken-eating moths native to the Southern Hemisphere into bracken-infested areas in the Northern Hemisphere. If the scientists proposal for controlling bracken is adopted, which of the following is a necessary condition for its success?

A.That bracken in the Northern Hemisphere grows in approximately the same climates and soil conditions in which it grows in the Southern Hemisphere.

B.That the released moths will feed on weeds other than bracken that are native to the Northern Hemisphere.

C.That the livestock that will return to pastures now lost to bracken will develop immunities to the diseases caused by bracken.

D.That the released moths will survive in sufficient numbers to build a population large enough to reduce bracken and retard its growth.

E.That traditional methods of control, such as burning, cutting, and chemical spraying, will not become less expensive or labor-intensive than they are now.

Although the ratio of physicians to total population is about the same in the United States and Canada, the United States has 33 percent more surgeons per capita. Clearly, this is the reason people in the United States undergo 40 percent more operations per capita than do Canadians. The explanation given above rests on an assumption that

A.patients in the United States do not have a greater need for surgery than do patients in Canada.

B.the population of the United States is not larger than that of Canada.

C.United States patients sometimes travel to Canada for certain kinds of surgery.

D.general practitioners in the United States do not as a rule examine a patient who is a candidate for surgery before sending the patient to a surgeon.

E.there are no unnecessary surgical operations performed in Canada.

A random sample of shoppers responded to the questions contained in a marketing survey. Six months later, another random sample of shoppers responded to exactly the same questions, except that the questions were now arranged in a different order. The pattern of responses to many individual questions was greatly different, thus demonstrating that a question will sometimes elicit different responses depending only on what question precedes it. The argument above depends on which of the following assumptions?

A.The reordering of the questions did not put each question in a different sequential position from its position six months previously.

B.Shoppers who respond to a marketing survey do not generally remember six months later what responses they gave.

C.There was no motive for the second survey except that of discovering whether the ordering of the questions mattered.

D.The survey was not composed of questions to which shoppers would give different responses at different times of the year.

E.The first sample of shoppers did not have any individuals in common with the survey sample of six months later.



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