Each advance in microscopic technique has provided scientists with new perspectives on the

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  • 提问人:匿名网友
  • 发布时间:2013-01-08

Each advance in microscopic technique has provided scientists with new perspectives on the function of living organisms and the nature of matter itself. The invention of the visible-light microscope late in the sixteenth century introduced a previously unknown realm of single celled plants and animals. In the twentieth century, electron microscope have provided direct views of viruses and minuscule surface structures. Now another type of microscope, one that utilizes X rays rather than light or electrons, offers a different way of examining tiny de tails; it should extend human perception still farther into the natural world.

The dream of building an X-ray microscope dates to 1895; its development, however, was virtually halted in the 1940's because the development of the electron microscope was progressing rapidly. During the 1940's, electron microscopes routinely achieved resolution better than that possible with a visible-light microscope, while the performance of X-ray microscopes resisted improvement. In recent years, however, interest in X-ray microscopes has revived, largely because of advances such as the development of new sources of X-ray illumination. As a result, the brightness available today is millions, of times that of X-ray tubes, which, for most of the century, were the only avail able sources of soft X-rays.

The new X-ray microscopes considerably improve on the resolution provided by optical microscopes. They can also be used to map the distribution of certain chemical elements. Some can form. pictures in extremely short times; others hold the promise of special capabilities such as three-dimensional imaging. Unlike conventional electron microscopy, X-ray microscopy enables specimens to be kept in air and in water, which means that biological samples can be studied under conditions similar to their natural state. The illumination used, so-called soft X rays in the wavelength range of twenty to forty angstroms (an angstrom is one ten-billionth of a meter), is also sufficiently penetrating to, image intact biological cells in many cases. Because of the wavelength of the X rays used, soft X-ray microscopes will never match the highest resolution possible with electron microscopes. Rather, their special properties will make possible investigations that will complement those performed with light-and-electron-based instruments.

What does the passage mainly discuss?

A.The detail seen through a microscope.

B.Sources of illumination for microscopes.

C.A new kind of microscope.

D.Outdated microscopic techniques.

According to the passage, the invention of the visible-light microscope allowed scientists to ______.

A.see viruses directly

B.develop the electron microscope later on

C.understand more about the distribution of the chemical elements

D.discover single-celled plants anal animals they had never seen before

Why does the author mention the visible-light microscope in the first paragraph?

A.To begin a discussion, of sixteenth-century discoveries.

B.To put the X-ray microscope in a historical perspective.

C.To show how limited its uses are.

D.To explain how it functioned.

Why did it take so long to develop the X-ray microscope?

A.Funds for research were insufficient.

B.The source of illumination was not bright enough until recently.

C.Materials used to manufacture X-ray tubes were difficult to obtain.

D.X-ray microscopes were too complicated to operate.

Based on the information in the passage, what can be inferred about X-ray microscopes in the future?

A.They will probably replace electron microscopes altogether.

B.They will eventually he much cheaper to produce than they are now.

C.They will provide information not available from other kinds of microscopes.

D.They will eventually change the illumination range that they now use.




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