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题库首页外语类大学英语四级2019年6月大学英语四级真题试卷(卷二)在线测试新整理版附答案

2019年6月大学英语四级真题试卷(卷二)在线测试新整理版附答案

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  • 卷面总分:100分
  • 试卷类型:历年真题
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2019年6月大学英语四级真题试卷(卷二)在线测试新整理版附答案,包含完整笔试题型,专为考生准备的真题再测卷。

题型:

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  • Reading(长篇阅读)
  • Reading(仔细阅读)
  • Translation
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1

Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a news report to your campus newspaper on a visit to a local farm organized by your Student Union. You should write at least 120 words but no more than180 words.

2

Section B

Make Stuff, Fail, And Learn While You're At It

[A] We've always been a hands-on, do-it-yourself kind of nation. Ben Franklin, one of America's founding fathers, didn't just invent the lightning rod. His creations include glasses, innovative stoves and more.

[B] Franklin, who was largely self-taught, may have been a genius, but he wasn't really an exception when it comes to American making and creativity.

[C] The personal computing revolution and philosophy of disruptive innovation of Silicon Valley grew, in part, out of the creations of the Homebrew Computer Club, Which was founded in a garage in Menlo Park, California, in the mid-1970s. Members — including guys named Jobs and Wozniak — started making and inventing things they couldn't buy.

[D] So it's no surprise that the Maker Movement today is thriving in communities and some schools across America. Making is available to ordinary people who aren't tied to big companies, big defense labs or research universities. The maker philosophy echoes old ideas advocated by John Dewey, Montessori, and even ancient Greek philosophers, as we pointed out recently.

[E] These maker spaces are often outside of classrooms, and are serving an important educational function. The Maker Movement is rediscovering learning by doing, which is Dewey's phrase from 100 years ago. We are rediscovering Dewey and Montessori and a lot of the practices that they pioneered that have been forgotten or at least put aside. A maker space is a place which can be in a school, but it doesn't look like a classroom. It can be in a library. It can be out in the community. It has tools and materials. It's a place where you get to make things based on your interest and on what you're learning to do.

[F] Ideas about learning by doing have struggled to become mainstream educationally, despite being old concepts from Dewey and Montessori, Plato and Aristotle, and in the American Contcxt, Ralph Emerson, on the value of experience and self-reliance. It's not necessarily an efficient way to learn. We learn, in a sense, by trial and error. Learning from experience is something that takes time and patience. It's very individualized. If your goal is to have standardized approaches to learning, where everybody learns the same thing at the same time in the same way, then learning by doing doesn't really fit that mold anymore. It's not the world of textbooks. It's not the world of testing.

[G] Learning by doing may not be efficient, but it is effective. Project-based learning has grown in popularity with teachers and administrators. However, project-based learning is not making. Although there is a connection, there is also a distinction. The difference lies in whether the project is in a sense defined and developed by the student or whether it's assigned by a teacher. We'll all get the kids to build a small boat. We are all going to learn about X, Y, and Z. That tends to be one form. of project-based learning.

[H] I really believe the core idea of making is to have an idea within your head — or you just borrow it from someone — and begin to develop it , repeat it and improve it. Then, realize that idea somehow. That thing that you make is valuable to you and you can share it with others. I'm interested in how these things are expressions of that person, their ideas, and their interactions with the world.

[I] In some ways, a lot of forms of making in school trivialize(使变得无足轻重)making. The thing that you make has no value to you. Once you are done demonstrating whatever concept was in the textbook, you throw away the pipe cleaners, the cardboard tubes.

[J] Making should be student-directed and student-led, otherwise it's boring. It doesn't have the motivation of the student. I'm not saying that students should not learn concepts or not learn skills. They do. But to really harness their motivation is to build upon their interest. It's to let them be in control and to drive the car.

[K] Teachers should aim to build a supportive, creative environment for students to do this work. A very social environment, where they are learning from each other. When they have a problem, it isn't the teacher necessarily coming in to solve it. They are responsible for working through that problem. It might be they have to talk to other students in the class to help get an answer.

[L] The teacher's role is more of a coach or observer. Sometimes, to people, it sounds like this is a diminished rote for teachers. I think it's a heightened role. You're ereating this environment, like a maker space. You have 20 kids doing different things. You are watching them and really it's the human behaviors you're looking at. Are they engaged? A they developing and repeating their project? Are they stumbling (受挫)? Do they need something that they don't have? Can you help them be aware of where they are?

[M] My belief is that the goal of making is not to get every kid to be hands-on, but it enable us to be good learners. It's not the knowledge that is valuable, It's the practice of learning new things and understanding how things work. These are processes that you are developing so that you are able, over time, to tackle more interesting problems, more challenging problems—problems that require many people instead of one person, and many skills instead of one.

[N] If teachers keep it form-free and student-led, it can still be tied to a curriculum and an educational plan. I think a maker space is more like a like a library in that there are multiple subjects and multiple things that you can learn. What seems to be missing in school is how these subjects integrate, how they fit together in any meaningful way. Rather than saying, ‘This is science, over here is history,' I see schools taking this idea of projects and looking at: How do they support children in higher level learning?

[O] I feel like this is a shift away form. a subject matter-based curriculum to a more experiential curriculum or learning. It's still in its early stages, but I think it's shifting around not what kids learn but how they learn.

37.【题干】A maker space is where people make things according to their personal interests.

38.【题干】The teachers' role is enhanced in a maker space as they have to monitor and facilitate during the process.

39.【题干】Coming up with an idea of one's own or improving one from others is key to the concept of making.

40.【题干】Contrary to structured learning, learning by doing is highly individualized.

41.【题干】America is a nation known for the idea of making things by oneself.

42.【题干】Making will be boring unless students are able to take charge.

43.【题干】Making can be related to a project, but it is created and carried out by students themselves.

44.【题干】The author suggests incorporating the idea of a maker space into a school curriculum.

45.【题干】The maker concept is a modern version of some ancient philosophical ideas.

46.【题干】Making is not taken seriously in school when students are asked to make something meaningless to them based on textbooks.

3

Section C

Passage One

Questions 47 to 51 are based on the following passage.

In the classic marriage vow(誓约), couples promise to stay together in sickness and in health. But a new study finds that the risk of divorce among older couples rises when the wife-not the husband—becomes seriously ill.

"Married women diagnosed with a serious health condition may find themselves struggling with the impact of their disease while also experiencing the stress of divorce," said researcher Amelia Karraker.

Karraker and co-author Kenzie Latham analyzed 20 years of data on 2,717 marriages from a study conducted by Indiana University since 1992. At the time of the first interview, at least one of the partners was over the age of 50.

The researchers examined how the onset(发生)of four serious physical illnesses affected marriages. They found that, overall, 31% of marriages ended in divorce over the period studied. The incidence of new chronic(慢性的)illness onset increased over time as will, with more husbands than wives developing serious health problems.

"We found that women are doubly vulnerable to marital break-up in the face of illness," Karraker said. "They're more likely to be widowed, and if they're the noes who become ill, they're more likely to get divorced."

While the study didn't assess why divorce in more likely when wives but not husbands become seriously ill, Karraker offers a few possible reasons. "Gender norms and social expectations about caregiving many make it more difficult for men to provide care to sick spouses," Karraker said. "And because of the imbalance in marriage markets, especially in older ages, divorced men have more choices among prospective partners than divorced women."

Given the increasing concern about health care costs for the aging population, Karraker believes policymakers should be aware of the relationship between disease and risk of divorce.

"Offering support services to spouses caring for their other halves may reduce marital stress and prevent divorce at older ages," she said. "But it's also important to recognize that the pressure to divorce may be health-related and that sick ex-wives may need additional care and services to prevent worsening health and increased health costs."

What can we learn about marriage vows from the passage?

  • A.They may not guarantee a lasting marriage.
  • B.They are as binding as they used to be.
  • C.They are not taken seriously any more.
  • D.They may help couples tide over hard times.
4
What did Karraker and co-author Kenzie Latham find about elderly husbands?
  • A.They are generally not good at taking care of themselves.
  • B.They can become increasingly vulnerable to serious illnesses.
  • C.They can develop different kinds of illnesses just like their wives.
  • D.They are more likely to contract serious illnesses than their wives.
5
What does Karraker say about women who fall ill?
  • A.They are more likely to be widowed
  • B.They are more likely to get divorced
  • C.They are less likely to receive good care
  • D.They are less likely to bother their spouses.
6
Why is it more difficult for men to take care of their sick spouses according to Karraker?
  • A.They are more accustomed to receiving care
  • B.They find it more important to make money for the family.
  • C.They think it more urgent to fulfill their social obligations.
  • D.They expect society to do more of the job
7
What does Karraker think is also important?
  • A.Reducing marital stress on wives.
  • B.Stabilizing old couples's relations.
  • C.Providing extra care for divorced women.
  • D.Making men pay for their wives'health costs.
8

Passage Two

Questions 52 to 56 are based on the following passage.

If you were like most children, you probably got upset when your mother called you by a sibling's(兄弟姐妹的)name. How could she not know you? Did it mean she loved you less?

Probably not. According to the first research to tackle this topic head-on, misnaming the most familiar people in our life is a common cognitive(认知的)error that has to do with how our memories classify and store familiar names.

The study, published online in April in the journal Memory and Cognition, found that the "wrong" name is not random but is invariably fished out from the same relationship pond: children, siblings, friends. The study did not examine the possibility of deep psychological significance to the mistake, says psychologist David Rubin, "but it does tell us who's in and who's out of the group."

The study also found that within that group, misnamings occurred where the names shared initial or internal sounds, like Jimmy and Joanie or John and Bob. Physical resemblance between people was not a factor. Nor was gender.

The researchers conducted five separate surveys of more than 1,700 people. Some of the surveys included only college students; others were done with a mixed-age population. Some asked subjects about incidents where someone close to them—family or friend—had called them by another person's name. The other surveys asked about times when subjects had themselves called someone close to them by the wrong name. All the surveys found that people mixed up names within relationship groups such as grandchildren, friends and siblings but hardly ever crossed these boundaries.

In general, the study found that undergraduates were almost as likely as old people to make this mistake and men as likely as women. Older people and this mistake and men as likely as women. Older people and women made the mistake slightly more often, but that may be because grandparents have more grandchildren to mix up than parents have children. Also, mothers may call on their children more often than fathers, given traditional gender norms. There was no evidence that errors occurred more when the misnamer was frustrated, tired or angry.

How might people often feel when they were misnamed?

  • A.Unwanted.
  • B.Unhappy.
  • C.Confused.
  • D.Indifferent.
9
What did David Rubin's research find about misnaming?
  • A.It is related to the way our memories work.
  • B.It is a possible indicator of a faulty memory.
  • C.It occurs mostly between kids and their friends.
  • D.It often causes misunderstandings among people
10
What is most likely the cause of misnaming?
  • A.Similar personality traits.
  • B.Similar spellings of names.
  • C.Similar physical appearance
  • D.Similar pronunciation of names.
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