Discoveries in science and technology are thought by "untaught minds" to come in blinding flashes or as the result of dramatic accidents. Sir Alexander Fleming did not, as legend would have it, look at the mold(霉)on a piece of cheese and get the idea for penicillin there and then. He experimented with antibacterial substances for nine years before he made his discovery. Inventions and innovations almost always come out of laborious trial and error. Innovation is like soccer; even the best players miss the goal and have their shots blocked much more frequently than they score. The point is that the players who score most are the ones who take the most shots at the goal and so it goes with innovation in any field of activity. The prime difference between innovators and others is one of approach. Everybody gets ideas, but innovators work consciously on theirs and they follow them through until they prove practicable or otherwise. What ordinary people see as fanciful abstractions, professional innovators see as solid possibilities. "Creative thinking may mean simply the realization that theres no particular virtue in doing things the way they have always been done. " wrote Rudolph Flesch, a language authority. This accounts for our reaction to seemingly simple innovations like plastic garbage bags and suitcases on wheels that make life more convenient; "How come nobody thought of that before?" The creative approach begins with the proposition that nothing is as it appears. Innovators will not accept that there is only one way to do anything. Faced with getting from A to B, the average person will automatically set out on the best-known and apparently simplest route. The innovator will search for alternate courses, which may prove easier in the long run and are bound to be more interesting and challenging even if they lead to dead ends. Highly creative individuals really do march to a different drummer. Questions:
What does the author probably mean by "untaught mind" in the first paragraph?
A．A person ignorant of the hard work involved in experimentation.
B．A citizen of a society that restricts personal creativity.
C．A person who has had no education.
D．An individual who often comes up with new ideas by accident.
According to the author, what distinguishes innovators from non-innovators?
A．The variety of ideas they have.
B．The intelligence they possess.
C．The way they deal with problems.
D．The way they present their findings.
The author quotes Rudolph Flesch in paragraph 3 because______.
A．Rudolph Flesch is the best-known expert in the study of human creativity
B．the quotation strengthens the assertion that creative individuals look for new ways of doing things
C．the reader is familiar with Rudolph Flesch"s point of view
D．the quotation adds a new idea to the information previously presented
The phrase "march to a different drummer"(the last line of the passage)suggests that highly creative individuals are______.
A．diligent in pursuing their goals
B．reluctant to follow common ways of doing things
C．devoted to the progress of science
D．concerned about the advance of society
When we talk about intelligence, we do not mean the ability to get a good score on a certain kind of test, or even the ability to do well in school. By intelligence we mean a style. of life, a way of behaving in various situations. The true test of intelligence is not how much we know how to do, but how we behave when we dont know what to do. The intelligent person, young or old, meeting a new situation or problem, opens himself up to it. He tries to take in with mind and senses everything he can about it. He thinks about it, instead of about himself or what it might cause to happen to him. He grapples with it boldly, imaginatively, resourcefully, and if not confidently, at least hopefully; if he fails to master it, he looks without fear or shame at his mistakes and learns what he can from them. This is intelligence. Clearly its roots lie in a certain feeling about life, and ones self with respect to life. Just as clearly, unintelligence is not what most psychologists seem to suppose, the same thing as intelligence, only less of it. It is an entirely different style. of behavior, arising out of entirely different set of attitudes. Years of watching and comparing bright children with the. not-bright, or less bright, have shown that they are very different kinds of people. The bright child is curious about life and reality, eager to get in touch with it, embrace it, unite himself with it. There is no wall, no barrier, between himself and life. On the other hand, the dull child is far less curious, far less interested in what goes on and what is real, more inclined to live in a world of fantasy. The bright child likes to experiment, to try things out. He lives by the maxim(格言)that there is more than one way to skin a cat. If he cant do something one way, hell try another. The dull child is usually afraid to try at all. It takes a great deal of urging to get him to try even once; if that try fails, he is through. Nobody starts off stupid. Hardly an adult in a thousand, or ten thousand could in any three years of his life learn as much, grow as much in his understanding of the world around him, as every infant learns and grows in his first three years. But what happens, as we grow older, to this extraordinary capacity for learning and intellectual growth? What happens is that it is destroyed, and more than by any other one thing, it is destroyed by the process that we misname education—a process that goes on in most homes and schools. Questions:
The writer believes that intelligence is______.
A．doing well in school
B．doing well on some examinations
C．a certain type of behavior
D．good scores on tests
The writer believes that "unintelligence" is______.
A．similar to intelligence
B．less than intelligence
C．the common belief of most psychologists
D．a particular way of looking at the world
Why does the writer say that education is misnamed?
A．Because it takes place more in homes than in school.
B．Because it discourages intellectual growth.
C．Because it helps dull children with their problems.
D．Because it helps children understand the world around them.
In the paragraphs which follow the above passage, the writer probably discusses______.
A．how education destroys the development of intelligence
B．how bright children differ from dull children
C．how intelligence is inherited
D．how the child"s intellectual capacity grows at home and school
"I have great confidence that by the end of the decade well know in vast detail how cancer cells arise," says microbiologist Robert Weinberg, an expert on cancer. "But," he cautions, "some people have the idea that once one understands the causes, the cure will rapidly follow. Consider Pasteur. He discovered the causes of many kinds of infections, but it was fifty or sixty years before cures were available. " This year, 50 percent of the 910 000 people who suffer from cancer will survive at least five years. In the year 2000, the National Cancer Institute estimates, that figure will be 75 percent. For some skin cancers, the five-year survival rate is as high as 90 percent. But other survival statistics are still discouraging—13 percent for lung cancer, and 2 percent for cancer of the pancreas(胰腺). With as many as 120 varieties in existence, discovering how cancer works is not easy. The researchers made great progress in the early 1970s, when they discovered that oncogenes, which are cancer-causing genes(基因), are inactive in normal cells. Anything from cosmic rays to radiation to diet may activate a dormant oncogene, but how remains unknown. If several oncogenes are driven into action, the cell, unable to turn them off, becomes cancerous. The exact mechanisms involved are still mysterious, but the likelihood that many cancers are initiated at the level of genes suggests that we will never prevent all cancers. "Changes are a normal part of the evolutionary process," says oncologist William Hayward. Environmental factors can never be totally eliminated; as Hayward points out, "We cant prepare a medicine against cosmic rays. " The prospects for cure, though still distant, are brighter. "First, we need to understand how the normal cell controls itself. Second, we have to determine whether there are a limited number of genes in cells which are always responsible for at least part of the trouble. If we can understand how cancer works, we can counteract its action. " Questions:
The example of Pasteur in the passage is used to______.
A．predict that the secret of cancer will be disclosed in a decade
B．indicate that the prospects for curing cancer are bright
C．prove that cancer will be cured in fifty to sixty years
D．warn that there is still a long way to go before cancer can be conquered
The author implies that by the year 2000, ______.
A．there will be a drastic rise in the five-year survival rate of skin-cancer patients
B．90 percent of the skin-cancer patients today will still be living
C．the survival statistics will be fairly even among patients with various cancers
D．there won"t be a drastic increase of survival rate of all cancer patients