Early Maori adapted the tropically based east Polynesian culture in line with the challe

Early Maori adapted the tropically based east Polynesian culture in line with the challenges associated with a larger and more diverse environment, eventually developing their own distinctive culture.

The British and Irish immigrants brought aspects of their own culture to New Zealand and also influenced Maori culture. More recently American, Australian, Asian and other European cultures have exerted influence on New Zealand.

New Zealand music has been influenced by blues, jazz, country, rock and roll and hip hop, with many of these genres given a unique New Zealand interpretation. Maori developed traditional chants and songs from their ancient South-East Asian origins, and after centuries of isolation created a unique "monotonous" and "doleful" sound.

The number of New Zealand films significantly increased during the 1970s. In 1978 the New Zealand Film Commission started assisting local film-makers and many films attained a world audience, some receiving international acknowledgement.

New Zealand television primarily broadcasts American and British programming, along with a large number of Australian and local shows. The country&39;s diverse scenery and compact size, plus government incentives, have encouraged some producers to film big budget movies in New Zealand.

The Ministry for Culture and Heritage is government’s leading adviser on cultural matters. The Ministry funds, monitors and supports a range of cultural agencies and delivers a range of high-quality cultural products and services.

The Ministry provides advice to government on where to focus its interventions in the cultural sector. It seeks to ensure that funding is invested as effectively and efficiently as possible, and that government priorities are met.

The Ministry has a strong track record of delivering high-quality publications, managing significant heritage and commemorations, and acting as guardian of New Zealand’s culture. The Ministry’s work prioritizes cultural outcomes and also supports educational, economic and social outcomes, linking with the work of a range of other government agencies.


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今年以来,在世界经济形势依然复杂多变的情况下,中国有针对性地加强 和改善宏观调控,着力稳物价、调结构、保民生、促和谐,经济增长由政策刺激向自主增长有序转变,国民经济继续朝着宏观调控的预期方向发展。



PALOS DE LA FRONTERA, Spain — Back home in Gambia, Amadou Jallow was, at 22, a lover of re

PALOS DE LA FRONTERA, Spain — Back home in Gambia, Amadou Jallow was, at 22, a lover of reggae who had just finished college and had landed a job teaching science in a high school. But Europe beckoned.

In his West African homeland, Mr. Jallow&39; s salary was the equivalent of just 50 euros a month, barely enough for the necessities, he said. And everywhere in his neighborhood in Serekunda, Gambia&39; s largest city, there was talk of easy money to be made in Europe.

Now he laughs bitterly about all that talk. He lives in a patch of woods here in southern Spain, just outside the village of Palos de la Frontera, with hundreds of other immigrants. They have built their homes out of plastic sheeting and cardboard, unsure if the water they drink from an open pipe is safe. After six years on the continent, Mr. Jallow is rail thin, and his eyes have a yellow tinge.

“We are not bush people,” he said recently as he gathered twigs to start a fire. “You think you are civilized. But this is how we live here. We suffer here.”

The political upheaval in Libya and elsewhere in North Africa has opened the way for thousands of new migrants to make their way to Europe across the Mediterranean. Already some 25,000 have reached the island of Lampedusa, Italy, and hundreds more have arrived at Malta.

The boats, at first, brought mostly Tunisians. But lately there have been more sub-Saharans.

Experts say thousands more — many of whom have been moving around North Africa trying to get to Europe for years, including Somalis, Eritreans, Senegalese and Nigerians — are likely to follow, sure that a better life awaits them.

But for Mr. Jallow and for many others who arrived before them, often after days at sea without food or water, Europe has offered hardships they never imagined. These days Mr. Jallow survives on two meals a day, mostly a leaden paste made from flour and oil, which he stirs with a branch.

“It keeps the hunger away,” he said.

The authorities estimate that there are perhaps 10,000 immigrants living in the woods in the southern Spanish province of Andalusia, a region known for its crops of strawberries, raspberries and blueberries, and there are thousands more migrants in areas that produce olives, oranges and vegetables. Most of them have stories that echo Mr. Jallow&39; s.

From the road, their encampments look like igloos tucked among the trees. Up close, the squalor is clear. Piles of garbage and flies are everywhere. Old clothes, stiff from dirt and rain, hang from branches.

“There is everything in there,” said Diego Canamero, the leader of the farm workers&39; union in Andalusia, which tries to advocate for the men. “You have rats and snakes and mice and fleas.”

The men in the woods do not call home with the truth, though. They send pictures of themselves posing next to Mercedes cars parked on the street, the kind of pictures that Mr. Jallow says he fell for so many years ago. Now he shakes his head toward his neighbors, who will not talk to reporters.

“So many lies,” he said. “It is terrible what they are doing. But they are embarrassed.”

Even now, though, Mr. Jallow will not consider going back to Gambia. “I wouldprefer to die here,” he said. “I cannot go home empty-handed. If I went home, they would be saying, "What have you been doing with yourself, Amadou" They think in Europe there is money all over.”

The immigrants — virtually all of them are men — cluster by nationality and look for work on the farms. But Mr. Canamero says they are offered only the least desirable work, like handling pesticides, and little of it at that. Most have no working papers.

Occasionally, the police bring bulldozers to tear down the shelters. But the men, who have usually used their family&39; s life savings to get here, are mostly left alone — the conditions they live under are an open secret in the nearby villages.








This month, the United Nations Development Program made water and sanitation the centerpie

This month, the United Nations Development Program made water and sanitation the centerpiece of its flagship publication, the Human Development Report.

Claims of a "water apartheid," where poor people pay more for water than the rich, are bound to attract attention. But what are the economics behind the problem, and how can it be fixed? In countries that have trouble delivering clean water to their people, a lack of infrastructure is often the culprit. People in areas that are not served by public utilities have to rely on costlier ways of getting water, such as itinerant water trucks and treks to wells. Paradoxically, as the water sources get costlier, the water itself tends to be more dangerous. Water piped by utilities - to the rich and the poor alike - is usually cleaner than water trucked in or collected from an outdoor tank.

The problem exists not only in rural areas but even in big cities, said Hakan Bjorkman, program director of the UN agency in Thailand. Further, subsidies made tolocal water systems often end up benefiting people other than the poor, he added.

The agency proposes a three-step solution. First, make access to 20 liters, or 5 gallons, of clean water a day a human right. Next, make local governments accountable for delivering this service. Last, invest in infrastructure to link people to water mains.The report says governments, especially in developing countries, should spend at least 1 percent of gross domestic product on water and sanitation. It also recommends that foreign aid be more directed toward these problems. Clearly, this approach relies heavily on government intervention, something Bjorkman readily acknowledged. But there are some market-based approaches as well.

By offering cut-rate connections to poor people to the water mainline, the private water utility in Abidjan, Ivory Coast, has steadily increased access to clean water, according to the agency&39;s report. A subsidy may not even be necessary, despite the agency&39;s proposals, if a country can harness the economic benefits of providing clean water.

People who receive clean water are much less likely to die from water-borne diseases - a common malady in the developing world - and much more likely to enjoy long, productive, taxpaying lives that can benefit their host countries. So if a government is trying to raise financing to invest in new infrastructure, it might find receptive ears in private credit markets - as long as it can harness the return. Similarly, private companies may calculate that it is worth bringing clean water to an area if its residents are willing to pay back the investment over many years.

In the meantime, some local solutions are being found. In Thailand, Bjorkman said, some small communities are taking challenges like water access upon themselves. "People organize themselves in groups to leverage what little resources they have to help their communities," he said. "That&39;s especially true out in the rural areas. They invest their money in revolving funds and saving schemes, and they invest themselves to improve their villages. "It is not always easy to take these solutions and replicate them in other countries, though. Assembling a broad menu of different approaches can be the first step in finding the right solution for a given region or country.







The prehistoric monument of Stonehenge stands tall in the British countryside as one of th

The prehistoric monument of Stonehenge stands tall in the British countryside as one of the last remnants of the Neolithic Age. Recently it has also become the latest symbol of another era: the new fiscal austerity. A plan to replace the site? s run-down visitors center with one almost five times bigger and to close a busy road that runs along the 5,000-year-old monument had to be mothballed in June. The British government had suddenly withdrawn £ 10 million, or $16 million, in financing for the project as part of a budget austerity.

Stonehenge, once a temple with giant stone slabs aligned in a circle to mark the passage of the sun, is among the most prominent victims of the government? s spending cuts. The decision was heavily criticized by local lawmakers, especially because Stonehenge, a UnescoWorld Heritage site, was part of London? s successful bid to host the 2012 Olympic Games.The shabby visitors center there now is already too small for the 950,000 people who visit Stonehenge each year, let alone theadditional onslaught of tourists expected for the Games, the official says.

Stonehenge is the busiest tourist attraction in Britain? s southwest, topping even Windsor Castle. But no major improvements have been made to the facilities there since they were built 40 years ago.For now, portable toilets lead from a crammed parking lot, a makeshift souvenir shop in a tent, a ticket office opposite a small kiosk that sells coffee and snacks.

The overhaul was scheduled for next spring in 2011. The plan, held by Denton Corker Marshall, the architectural firm, would keep the stone monument itself unchanged. But the current ticket office and shop would be demolished and a new visitors center would be built on the other side of the monument, about 2.5 kilometers, or 1.5 miles, from the stones.The center would have included a shop almost five times the size of the current one, a proper restaurant, three times as many parking spots and an exhibition space to provide more information about Stonehenge? s history.

A transit system would have shuttled visitors between the center and the stones while footpaths would have encouraged tourists to walk to the monument and explore the surrounding burial hills. The closed road would be grassed over to improve the surrounding landscape.Last year, the £27 million project won the backing of former Prime Minister

Gordon Brown. After more than 25 years of bickering with local communities about how and where to build the new center, planning permission was granted in January. Construction was supposed to start and be completed in time for the Olympics, but the economic recession has changed.

The new prime minister, David Cameron, has reversed many of his predecessor? s promises as part of a program to cut more than £99 billion annually over a period of five years to help to close a gaping budget deficit. The financing for Stonehenge fell in the first round of cuts, worth about £6.2 billion, from the budget for the current year, along with support for a hospital and the British Film Institute.

English Heritage, a partly government-financed organization that owns Stonehenge and more than 400 other historic sites in the country, is now aggressively looking for private donations. But the economic downturn has made the endeavor more difficult.

Loraine Knowles, Stonehenge? s project director, said she was disappointed that the government had withdrawn money while continuing to support museums in London. But she said she was hopeful that English Heritage could raise the money elsewhere. Stonehenge, she said, could then also become “a shining example of how philanthropy could work.”






互联网与实体经济不断融合,利用互联网改造和提升传统产业,带动了传 统产业结构调整和经济发展方式的转变。互联网发展与运用还催生了一批新兴产业,工业咨询、软件服务、外包服务等工业服务业蓬勃兴起。信息技术在加快自主创新和节能降耗,推动减排治污等方面的作用日益凸显,互联网已经成为中国发展低碳经济的新型战略性产业。



When night falls in remote parts of Africa and the Indian subcontinent, hundreds of millio

When night falls in remote parts of Africa and the Indian subcontinent, hundreds of millions of people without access to electricity turn to candles or flammable and polluting kerosene lamps for illumination.

Slowly through small loans for solar powered devices, microfinance is bringing light to these rural regions where a lack of electricity has stymied economic development, literacy rates and health. A woman sews clothes on a sewing machine driven by solar energy in Ahmedabad/ Photo credit: Amit Dave/ Reuters

“Earlier, they could not do much once the sun set. Now, the sun is used differently. They have increased their productivity, improved their health and socio-economic status,” said Pinal Shah from SEWA Bank, a micro -lending institution.

Vegetable seller Ramiben Waghri took out a loan to buy a solar lantern which she uses to light up her stall at night. The lantern costs between $66-$112, about a week? s income for Waghri.

“The vegetables look better by this light, and it? s cheaper than kerosene and doesn? t smell,” said Waghri, who estimates she makes about 300 rupees ($6) more each evening with her lantern.

“If we can use the sun to save some money, why not?”

In India, solar power projects, often funded by micro credit institutions, are helping the country reduce carbon emissions and achieve its goal to double the contribution of renewable energy to 6%, or 25,000 megawatts, within the next four years.

Off-grid applications such as solar cookers and lanterns, which can provide several hours of light at night after being charged by the sun during the day, will help cut dependence on fossil fuels and reduce the fourth biggest emitter? s carbon footprint, said Pradeep Dadhich, a senior fellow at energy research institute TERI.

“They are reaching people who otherwise have limited or no access to electricity, and depend on kerosene, diesel or firewood for their energy needs,” he said.“The applications not only satisfy these needs, they also improve the quality of life and reduce the carbon footprint.”

SEWA or Self Employed Women? s Association, is among a growing number of microfinance institutions in India focused on providing affordable renewable energy sources to poor people, who otherwise would have had to stand for hours to buy kerosene for lamps, or trudge miles to collect firewood for cooking.

SKS Microfinance, India? s largest MFI, offers solar lamps to its 5 million customers, while Grameen Surya Bijlee (Rural Solar Electricity) Foundation helps fund lamps and home and street lighting systems for villagers in India, Nepal and Bangladesh.


全球气候变化深刻影响着人类生存和发展,是各国共同面临的重大挑战。 气候变化是人类发展进程中






LECCO, Italy — Each morning, about 450 students travel along 17 school bus routes to 10 el

LECCO, Italy — Each morning, about 450 students travel along 17 school bus routes to 10 elementary schools in this lakeside city at the southern tip of Lake Como. There are zero school buses.

In 2003, to confront the triple threats of childhood obesity, local traffic jams and — most important — a rise in global greenhouse gases abetted by car emissions, an environmental group here proposed a retro-radical concept: children should walk to school.

They set up a piedibus (literally foot-bus in Italian) — a bus route with a driver but no vehicle. Each morning a mix of paid staff members and parental volunteers in fluorescent yellow vests lead lines of walking students along Lecco? s twisting streets to the schools? gates, Pied Piper-style, stopping here and there as their flock expands.

At the Carducci School, 100 children, or more than half of the students, now take walking buses. Many of them were previously driven in cars. Giulio Greppi, a 9-year-old with shaggy blond hair, said he had been driven about a third of a mile each way until he started taking the piedibus. “I get to see my friends and we feel special because we know it? s good for the environment,” he said.

Although the routes are each generally less than a mile, the town? s piedibuses have so far eliminated more than 100,000 miles of car travel and, in principle, prevented thousands of tons of greenhouse gases from entering the air, Dario Pesenti, the town? s environment auditor, estimates.

The number of children who are driven to school over all is rising in the United States and Europe, experts on both continents say, making up a sizable chunk of transportation? s contribution to greenhouse-gas emissions. The “school run” made up 18 percent of car trips by urban residents of Britain last year, a national survey showed.

In 1969, 40 percent of students in the United States walked to school; in 2001, the most recent year data was collected, 13 percent did, according to the federal government? s National Household Travel Survey.

Lecco? s walking bus was the first in Italy, but hundreds have cropped up elsewhere in Europe and, more recently, in North America to combat the trend. Towns in France, Britain and elsewhere in Italy have created such routes, although few are as extensive and long-lasting as Lecco? s.




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